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Trauma is a condition that a person encounters after a sudden onset of physical injury which requires immediate medical attention.
Traumatic injuries may be mild or severe, depending on the severity, the patient may be treated only in a hospital emergency or may require a trauma alert team with high level of appropriate care. Response to trauma may be embodied by an acute stress reaction, which is a short-lived reaction that develops following a traumatic event.
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Traumatic injury may be as a result of motor vehicle accidents, sports injury, fall, a natural disaster that require medical care.
Road traffic accidents are the commonest causes of trauma.
Polytrauma or multiple trauma is defined as the condition in which the patient has suffered multiple traumatic injuries. It has a high mortality and morbidity rates in both developed and developing countries.
The commonest injuries due to trauma and accident include head injuries, chest and abdominal injuries, fractures,and dislocations.
Patients with severe brain injury can die even before they are brought to the hospital. Patients who survive the traumatic brain injury may often suffer from neuro-psychologic impairments and disabilities.
Blunt trauma to head and neck can lead to arterial injuries which may result in the development of stroke causing neurological disabilities. Among road traffic injuries, 30% of the deaths are due to blood loss and 10-20% of the deaths could be preventable with better control of bleeding.
There are various types of traumatic injury include but not limited to;
The life of a traumatized person may not be the same. Some people may even undergo a condition known as PTSD (Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder).
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As a bystander, quick thinking and action may help in saving someone’s life. You can help a victim of an accident by:
After the person is brought to the hospital, immediate investigations are to be done to assess the nature and extent of injuries. Some of the investigations include:
Polytrauma is associated with significant complications and can, therefore, be life-threatening. The management of such patients requires rapid assessment and life-preserving management. These severely injured patients can be saved with efficient management and focused trauma care in tertiary care hospitals.
Polytrauma is a major cause of death worldwide. It has a high rate of mortality and morbidity. Patients with polytrauma would have injuries involving multiple body regions or cavities. Polytrauma management involves massive resuscitation, extensive imaging, multiple surgeries, hospitalization in intensive care units and complex rehabilitation programmes.
The most common trauma care followed after an accident is most commonly known as an ABCDE management which stands for;
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Trauma can lead to improper functioning of activities. One should overcome the trauma by facing fears and be able to talk about what had happened. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) can help you overcome the nightmares of a traumatic event. CBT includes;
The objective of a rehabilitation program is to enhance the recovery duration and strengthened muscle strength and to reduce the problems of bed sores. The ultimate goal is to enable the patient to be able to perform their regular activities as before the traumatic event took place.Rehabilitation can include;
Physical rehabilitation- depending on the severity of the traumatic event, the patient will receive a physical rehabilitation procedure, which will include but not limited to;
Cognitive rehabilitation- It consists of diverse interventions and consists of two components;
Disclaimer: The shared article is only for awareness and education purpose. Readers are advised to consult their doctor for proper evaluation of the condition and more information. Do not self-medicate.